According to those proposing a change in terminology, "slave" perpetuates the crime of slavery in language, by reducing its victims to a nonhuman noun instead of, according to Andi Cumbo-Floyd, "carry[ing] them forward as people, not the property that they were". Other historians prefer "slave" because the term is familiar and shorter, or because it accurately reflects the inhumanity of slavery, with "person" implying a degree of autonomy that slavery does not allow for. A Meccan merchant right and his Circassian slave, between and Chattel slavery Chattel slavery, also called traditional slavery, is so named because people are treated as the chattel personal property of the owner and are bought and sold as commodities.
Southern industry did not develop as rapidly as that of the North for a number of reasons, including a lack of investment capital, well-trained managers, and up-to-date technology, and the absence of reliable transportation. Furthermore, because of insufficient knowledge and capital, entrepreneurs were not necessarily able to use the most efficient methods that would allow them to create goods that could compete well in the North and abroad.
Finally, the slow pace of railroad construction, which was not well funded by state and local governments, made for inefficient—thus costly—transportation routes. The businesses that had the most success in marketing their products in the North were located in the border states.
Most Southern businesses selling raw materials and products had to either sell locally or through the Northern middlemen who controlled shipping.
Urban markets in the South were limited, because only 10 percent of the population lived in urban areas, with New Orleans and Baltimore being the largest cities.
The census indicated that there were eight cities in the South with populations of more than 22, people: Even had there been larger population centers, earning power was low among poor whites and slaves, and plantations to some degree or another tried to be as self-sufficient as possible.
Yet the products made in many of the manufacturing industries were tied to the needs of the plantations, so that other items still had to be purchased from the North.
This need caused a trade imbalance, for Southern industries were largely not able to successfully market their products to the North and abroad. Despite the difficulties inherent in doing business in the South, such industries as textiles, mining, lumbering, ironmongering, and gristmilling did develop because they served the needs of plantation owners.
Furthermore, slave owners were sometimes required to supply slave laborers for public works projects, such as building railroads, repairing roads, and improving waterways Starobinpp. During the s, fromtobondmen and women of the approximately 4 million slaves in the United States worked in industry.
Of these industrial slaves, 80 percent were owned by the business owner and 20 percent rented from their masters by the month or year Starobinpp. As with the profitability of plantation slaves, the profitability of enslaved urban workers depended on a number of factors. Yet many employers faced not only an overall labor shortage, but a pool of uneducated and undisciplined white workers who often resented working in industry because it lacked the status of being a landowner, or even a subsistence farmer.
Thus entrepreneurs opted to risk using slaves, including women and children who cost less to purchase than prime male slaves. White managers often trained and oversaw the work of the slaves, but that was not all. They also trained slaves to become managers.
Business owners soon realized that even when rented from a planter, slaves cost significantly less than did their free counterparts. As historian Robert Starobin explains: The annual average maintenance cost per industrial slave was … less than one-third the annual cost of wages and supervision of free common labors [sic]"p.
Some business owners ran enterprises using both free and enslaved laborers, whereas others, upon realizing that the bondmen and women were capable of accomplishing the same tasks as white workers, bought their slave workers outright and fired the white employees.
Records show slaves acting as business agents, mill and locomotive engineers, and ferryboat operators—and all at a fraction of the cost of white skilled labor.
It is not surprising, then, that nonlandholding whites may have felt resentful of slaves for having displaced them in the workplace. It is estimated that 10, slaves were employed at ironworks, 5, at hemp rope factories, 20, in fishing and fish processing, and 30, at gristmills for sugar, rice, corn, and flour processing.
They also worked in coal, iron, lead, gold, and salt mines, and as lumberjacks, sawing trees and extracting turpentine. Tobacco factories used slave laborers some 7, almost exclusively; they also used many women and children because, as in other light industries, they could be just as productive as the men and in some industries, where small and agile hands were needed, even more productive Starobinpp.
Profits varied from enterprise to enterprise. For example, "[t]he records of southern textile mills employing slave labor indicate that they usually earned annual profits on capital ranging from 10 to 65 percent and averaging about 16 percent. Moreover, the trend held true whether the slaves were owned or leased.
Planters took advantage of the opportunity for additional income from renting out slaves; yet, they wanted to keep the most able men to work in the fields. Most urban slaves worked as domestic servants who were primarily womenthough others worked as skilled craftsmen, dockworkers, washerwomen, factory workers, and day laborers.
Planters also wanted to keep their slaves from the corrupting influence of the city, for as Frederick Douglass — wrote, "A city slave is almost a freeman, compared with a slave on the plantation"p.
A moderate amount of capitalism satisfied the Southern landholders: Political Economy of Slavery: Hill and Wang, New York and Cambridge, U.Explain how slavery was both an economic institution and a social system that shaped whites and blacks alike, including their social and family life.
reference: Brenda Stevenson, Life in Black and White: Family and Community in the Slave South ().
When we look at “underclass culture” in the American cities of today we are seeing a product of that oppressive history. but, rather, of social, economic, and political practices deeply.
The Political Legacy of American Slavery Avidit Acharyay Matthew Blackwellz Maya Senx November 16, political and economic incentives to reinforce racist norms and institutions.
This as well as other social practices that could be used to suppress black. From the time the American colonies first began to form the Union, several questions were raised regarding the relationship of the Constitution of the United States and the institution of slavery.
Such institutions were a mixture of debt-slavery, punishment for crime, the enslavement of prisoners of war, child abandonment, and the birth of slave children to slaves. The Economic Impact of Slavery in the SouthWith its mild climate and fertile soil, the South became an agrarian society, where tobacco, rice, sugar, cotton, wheat, and hemp undergirded the economy.
Because of a labor shortage, landowners bought African slaves to work their massive plantations, and even small-scale farmers often used slave labor .