Colonial literature[ edit ] Because of the large immigration to Boston in the s, the articulation of Puritan ideals, and the early establishment of a college and a printing press in Cambridgethe New England colonies have often been regarded as the center of early American literature. However, the first European settlements in North America had been founded elsewhere many years earlier. During the colonial period, the printing press was active in many areas, from Cambridge and Boston to New YorkPhiladelphiaand Annapolis. The dominance of the English language was not inevitable.
Timeline of the Napoleonic era Napoleon 's retreat from Russia in The war swings decisively against the French Empire The Napoleonic Wars were a series of major conflicts from to pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon Iagainst a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitionsfinanced and usually led by the United Kingdom.
The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict. Later efforts were less successful. Inthe French invasion of Russia had massive French casualties, and was a turning point in the Napoleonic Wars.
Later that year, he escaped exile and began the Hundred Days before finally being defeated at the Battle of Waterloo and exiled to Saint Helenaan island in the South Atlantic Ocean.
After Napoleon's defeat, the Congress of Vienna was held to determine new national borders. The Concert of Europe attempted to preserve this settlement was established to preserve these borders, with limited impact.
Latin American independence[ edit ] The Chilean Declaration of Independence on 18 February Most countries in Central America and South America obtained independence from colonial overlords during the 19th century.
InHaiti gained independence from France. In Mexicothe Mexican War of Independence was a decade-long conflict that ended in Mexican independence in Due to the Napoleonic Wars, the royal family of Portugal relocated to Brazil fromleading to Brazil having a separate monarchy from Portugal.
After several rebellions, by the federation had dissolved into the independent countries of GuatemalaEl SalvadorHondurasNicaraguaand Costa Rica. Revolutions of [ edit ] Liberal and nationalist pressure led to the European revolutions of The Revolutions of were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in The revolutions were essentially democratic and liberal in nature, with the aim of removing the old monarchical structures and creating independent nation states.
The first revolution began in January in Sicily. Over 50 countries were affected, but with no coordination or cooperation among their respective revolutionaries. According to Evans and von Strandmannsome of the major contributing factors were widespread dissatisfaction with political leadership, demands for more participation in government and democracy, demands for freedom of the press, other demands made by the working class, the upsurge of nationalism, and the regrouping of established government forces.
The abolitionism movement achieved success in the 19th century. The Atlantic slave trade was abolished inand by the end of the century, almost every government had banned slavery.
The American Civil War took place from Eleven southern states seceded from the United Stateslargely over concerns related to slavery. Lincoln issued a preliminary  on September 22, warning that in all states still in rebellion Confederacy on January 1,he would declare their slaves "then, thenceforward, and forever free.
Five days after Robert E. Inthe Great Bosnian uprising against Ottoman rule occurred.
Inthe Principality of Serbia became suzerain from the Ottoman Empireand init passed a Constitution which defined its independence from the Ottoman Empire. InBulgarians instigate the April Uprising against Ottoman rule.
Taiping Rebellion[ edit ] A scene of the Taiping Rebellion. The Taiping Rebellion was the bloodiest conflict of the 19th century, leading to the deaths of 20 million people.
Its leader, Hong Xiuquandeclared himself the younger brother of Jesus Christ and developed a new Chinese religion known as the God Worshipping Society. After proclaiming the establishment of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom inthe Taiping army conquered a large part of China, capturing Nanjing in Inafter the death of Hong Xiuquan, Qing forces recaptured Nanjing and ended the rebellion.
Meiji Restoration[ edit ] Main article: Meiji Restoration During the Edo periodJapan largely pursued an isolationist foreign policy. Perry threatened the Japanese capital Edo with gunships, demanding that they agree to open trade. This led to the opening of trade relations between Japan and foreign countries, with the policy of Sakoku formally ended in Further reforms included the abolishment of the samurai class, rapid industrialization and modernization of government, closely following European models.American Culture in the 19th Century 7 Pages.
Words There were three new social classes in America during the 19th century the first two were the industrial capitalists, it included men like Andrew Carnegie. The second social class was the urban middle class. It included mostly doctors, lawyers, shop keepers, factory clerks, and the.
12 Lateth-Century Literature Nicolas S. Witschi Two major biographies, a new journal, and an ever-increasing interest in the various ways in which writers made use of the idea of realism. Start studying APUSH Unit 6.
Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. All of the following conditions influenced the development of American agriculture during the first half of the nineteenth century EXCEPT.
During the late 19th Century, the nation's major cities demonstrated all of the following. The first electronics appeared in the 19th century, with the introduction of the electric relay in , the telegraph and its Morse code protocol in , the first telephone call .
African American literature, body of literature written by Americans of African descent. Beginning in the pre-Revolutionary War period, African American writers have engaged in a creative, if often contentious, dialogue with American letters.
devoted to earlyth-century American literature. Scholars and students The first half of Cohen’s study tracks the circulation of ballads in three antebellum claims about the central role of poetry during a time in which American literature strove to achieve a prominent role on the world’s literary stage.