Patent Quality and Innovation in China: It is a must-read for all those working in the area, both for the amount of scattered information it gathered in one place and for the depth of analysis based on close analysis of the data. During the course of researching for and writing the study, I came across a number of common assertions that turned out to be myths. In the entry below, I briefly debunk just a few of these:
The laser is used increasingly for surgery, as it has proved to be a finely controlled and relatively bloodless means of dissecting and destroying tissue. German physicist Rudolf Walther Ladenburg first observed stimulated emission inalthough at the time it seemed to have no practical use.
In Charles H. Townesthen at Columbia University in New York Citythought of a way to generate stimulated emission at microwave frequencies. Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow independently described the theory of maser operation.
For their work all three shared the Nobel Prize for Physics. An intense burst of maser research followed in the mids, but masers found only a limited range of applications as low-noise microwave amplifiers and atomic clocks.
In Townes proposed to his brother-in-law and former postdoctoral student at Columbia University, Arthur L. Schawlow then at Bell Laboratoriesthat they try to extend maser action to the much shorter wavelengths of infrared or visible light. Townes also had discussions with a graduate student at Columbia University, Gordon Gouldwho quickly developed his own laser ideas.
Meanwhile, Gould coined the word laser and wrote a patent application. Eventually, Gould received a series of four patents starting in that earned him millions of dollars in royalties.
The Townes-Schawlow proposal led several groups to try building a laser. The Gould proposal became the basis of a classified military contract. Success came first to Theodore H. On May 16,he produced red pulses from a ruby rod about the size of a fingertip.
In Robert N. Maiman of Hughes Aircraft Company showing a cube of synthetic ruby crystal, the material at the heart of the first laser. Hughes Aircraft Company First gas laserAli Javan, a researcher at Bell Telephone Laboratories, displaying the first gas laser, which used a mixture of helium and neon.
Townes and Schawlow had expected laser beams to be used in basic research and to send signals through air or space. Gould envisioned more powerful beams capable of cutting and drilling many materials. A key early success came in late when two researchers at the University of MichiganEmmett Leith and Juris Upatnieks, used lasers to make the first three-dimensional holograms see holography.
Helium-neon lasers were the first lasers with broad commercial applications. Because they could be adjusted to generate a visible red beam instead of an infrared beam, they found immediate use projecting straight lines for alignment, surveying, construction, and irrigation.
Soon eye surgeons were using pulses from ruby lasers to weld detached retinas back in place without cutting into the eye.
The first large-scale application for lasers was the laser scanner for automated checkout in supermarkets, which was developed in the mids and became common a few years later. Compact disc audio players and laser printers for personal computers soon followed.
Lasers have become standard tools in diverse applications. Laser pointers highlight presentation points in lecture halls, and laser target designators guide smart bombs to their targets. Lasers weld razor blades, write patterns on objects on production lines without touching them, remove unwanted hair, and bleach tattoos.
Laser rangefinders in space probes profiled the surfaces of Mars and the asteroid Eros in unprecedented detail. In the laboratory, lasers have helped physicists to cool atoms to within a tiny fraction of a degree of absolute zero.
Fundamental principles Energy levels and stimulated emissions Laser emission is shaped by the rules of quantum mechanicswhich limit atoms and molecules to having discrete amounts of stored energy that depend on the nature of the atom or molecule.
The lowest energy level for an individual atom occurs when its electron s are all in the nearest possible orbits to its nucleus see electronic configuration. This condition is called the ground state.
Einstein recognized that this emission could be produced in two ways. Usually, discrete packets of light known as photons are emitted spontaneously, without outside intervention.Tired of reading sales pitches and hyped up reviews of Norwex products?
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My goal here is to provide real and useful reviews of Norwex products that will help you to decide which ones are right for you. Dulling the Cutting Edge: How Patent-Related Polices and Practices Hamper Innovation in China “Law Tech Talk,” Hong Kong University, March 19th Dan Prud’homme.
Port Manteaux churns out silly new words when you feed it an idea or two. Enter a word (or two) above and you'll get back a bunch of portmanteaux created by jamming together words that are conceptually related to your inputs..
For example, enter "giraffe" and you'll get . Early 19th Century French Infantry Hanger. The typical small side arm worn by French infantry in the early part of the 19th century.
This example has a solid brass hilt with a curved steel blade. it has been well used and shows some wear. issues closely related to patent quality that can be practically remedied in the near future. This study uncovers how a network of patent-related policies, other measures, and practices in China collectively hamper both patent quality and innovation at large.
Dulling the Cutting Edge: How Patent-Related Policies and Practices Hamper Innovation in China. Dan Prud'homme. MPRA Paper from University Library of Munich, Germany. Abstract: This study’s statistical analysis shows that patent quality and innovation in China deserve improvement, and an in-depth legal, management science, and economic analysis in the study shows that various patent-related.