It has yet to be proven that intelligence has any survival value. Stephen Covey, American leadership consultant and writer Out of 5. We can't argue with them, tell them they should be believers. And, realistically speaking, if the majority of humanity remain nonbelievers, it doesn't matter.
To know them is to understand literature and politics in postwar America. Select four answers to the question what should a reader be to be a good reader: The reader should belong to a book club.
The reader should identify himself or herself with the hero or heroine. The reader should concentrate on the social-economic angle. The reader should prefer a story with action and dialogue to one with none.
The reader should have seen the book in a movie. The reader should be a budding author. The reader should have imagination. The reader should have memory. The reader should have a dictionary. The reader should have some artistic sense.
Of course, as you have guessed, the good reader is one who has imagination, memory, a dictionary, and some artistic sense. While Nabokov was busy scrutinizing and cataloging literary devices, his U. On another level, however, Nabokov was making a subtle argument about the reading practices that had arisen alongside other changes in the United States just after World War II: Although his pop quiz registers his disdain for readers who deprioritized aesthetics, Nabokov himself was no stranger to such institutional projects of reading.
Never before had so many people aspired to engage with literary texts as serious works of art, armed with an autonomous set of rules governing what they read, how they read, and to what ends. Whether as exceptional students who went on to become professional writers, editors, publishers, teachers, or scholars of literature, or merely dutiful ones who would scatter into the workforce after graduation, the imprint of the good reader was often treated as a wholesale remaking of whatever reading habits had come before and a defense against those that might come after.
If the way he found shuts bad readers out, they must try to become better. Who were these bad readers? Where had they come from? What did they want out of reading? Why do bad readers matter? They lead us to the kinds of citizens—the internationalized subjects—that practices of bad reading aspired to produce.
Nowhere was this shift in reading practices more apparent than in institutions of international communication, where American literature played a crucial role in helping national and international readers alike acclimate to the rise of U.
At the same time that U. The institutions of literacy cultivation are intriguing not only for the sheer novelty of their political and international conscription of U.
Instead, these institutions strike me as exemplary for how people trained to read under their auspices began to imagine that reading literature might, quite literally, change the world: And their creation helped devise enduring strategies for how people could use literature to learn to speak, feel, perceive, and interact with others throughout the postwar period.
It is because they lead us to the kinds of citizens—the internationalized subjects—that practices of bad reading aspired to produce; and show how these literate subjects used reading to navigate a political climate that championed liberal individualism, on the one hand, while establishing unprecedented forms of institutional oversight, on the other.
Yet just as good readers required bad readers to prop up their sense of social distinction, so too did the category of literature require something outside itself to stabilize it. These literate subjects used reading to navigate a political climate that championed liberal individualism, on the one hand, while establishing unprecedented forms of institutional oversight, on the other.
Like a paramilitary group, which borrows its training techniques from the military but adapts them to different ends, or a parasite, which lives beside and feeds off its host, paraliterary readers exist alongside and in dialogue with the institutions of literature.
This is an account of how American literature made its mark on the world in strange and unappreciated ways: We are overwhelmingly familiar with the equipment that goes into the making of good readers: But what texts and institutional spaces account for the creation of bad readers?
To understand how people read in institutions adjacent to literature departments, we must first account for the distinctive types of texts that people read in tandem with literary works. Let me begin, somewhat conservatively, as Nabokov suggests his good reader ought, with a dictionary.
Tracking the various and evolving meanings of the term paraliterary—as a genre, a reading practice, and an institutional domain—offers a general framework for understanding the bad reader: These were the conditions under which the RFE urged the reading of memoirs, diaries, biographies, diplomatic studies, bureaucratic archives, and feature reports as primers for engaging with literary texts.
The RFE was by no means unique in its invitation to readerly preparation through paraliterary works. But how was this scene of reading organized and what did it hope to accomplish? Paraliterary works were meant to be read as factual, historically accurate narratives.
Rather than an insistence on genre differentiation, here the invitation was to genre confusion.Textbook Solutions Master the problems in your textbooks. With expertly written step-by-step solutions for your textbooks leading the way, you’ll not only score the correct answers, but, most importantly, you’ll learn how to solve them on your own.
Quotes, quotations, and sayings on materialism from living life fully.
By Michael Nielsen. One day in the mids, a Moscow newspaper reporter named Solomon Shereshevsky entered the laboratory of the psychologist Alexander Luria.
My best motivational exam quotes that help me pass the CPA Exam organized into persistence, diligence, overcoming failure, and living a fruitful life. Crime and Gangster Films are developed around the sinister actions of criminals or gangsters, particularly bankrobbers, underworld figures, or ruthless hoodlums who operate outside the law, stealing and violently murdering their way through life.
In the s, a new type of crime thriller emerged, more dark and cynical - see the section on film-noir for further examples of crime films. Want a good grade on your essay?
Instructors and testing agencies assign a lot of personal experience type essays and so it is worth your time to know how to write one easily and effectively so that you get a .