Regardless of whether a person has primary or secondary hypertension, the same types of organ damage and complications occur. Hypertension causes the heart to pump against greater resistance, increasing its workload. The size of the heart muscle increases from the outer layer of the epicardium to the inner layer of the endocardium. Besides the direct effects on the heart, high blood pressure accelerates atherosclerosis and can cause other serious complications.
Hypertension Introduction Hypertension is a multifactor disease characterized by chronic elevation in blood pressure to levels equal to or above mmHg systolic blood pressure SBP and above 90 mmHg of diastolic blood pressure DBP.
Considered a worldwide epidemic disease, hypertension is the main risk factor for cardiovascular disease, being epidemiologically closely associated with metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes.
Aging is a major risk factor for developing hypertension. The prevalence of the disease increases with age, with a higher rate in men than women. Life style modification is the first line of intervention for all patients with hypertension, but pharmacological is the cornerstone for the disease treatment to reduce the high blood pressure and prevent complications such as cardiovascular and renal morbidity and mortality.
For many years the right ventricle was grossly undervalued and considered to function mainly as a conduit, while its contractile performance was considered haemodynamically unimportant.
Since the early s, however, the relevance of the chamber in the maintenance of normal cardiac physiology was recognized in several cardiovascular disorders.
Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion TAPSE has been proposed as a simple and reproducible parameter for quantitative assessment of RV ejection fraction.
It provides a simple method for global RV functional assessment and is a strong predictor of prognosis in heart failure.
Although the right ventricle can now be imaged and studied in several ways, two-dimensional 2D guided M-mode echocardiography is an attractive tool due to its simplicity.
Studies on RV function among patients with hypertensive heart disease HHD are rather few and have focused mainly on the diastolic function of the chamber.
Aim of Work This study is aiming to assess the systolic function of the right ventricle in patients with systemic hypertension using tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion TAPSE.
Hypertension is defined as a systolic blood pressure SBP of mm Hg or more, or a diastolic blood pressure DBP of 90 mm Hg or more, or taking antihypertensive medication.
Available data on the prevalence of hypertension and the temporal trends of BP values are limited comparable data. Stroke mortality is a good candidate, because hypertension is by far the most important cause of this event.
A close relationship between prevalence of hypertension and mortality for stroke has been reported. Hypertension can be classified as either essential or secondary. Secondary hypertension indicates that high blood pressure is a result of another underlying condition, such as kidney disease or tumors adrenal-adenoma or pheochromocytoma.
Persistent hypertension is one of the risk factors for strokes, heart attacks, heart failure and arterial aneurysm, and is a leading cause of chronic renal failure.
Most mechanisms leading to secondary hypertension are well understood. The path-physiology of essential hypertension remains an area of active research, with many theories and different links to many factors.
Cardiac and peripheral resistance are the two determinants of arterial pressure. Hence, for understanding the pathogenesis and treatment of hypertensive disorders, it is useful to understand factors involved in the regulation of normal and elevated arterial blood pressure.
Cardiac output is the volume of the blood pumped by the heart in a specific period of time usually 1 minutewhile peripheral vascular resistance is the force in the blood vessels that the left ventricle must overcome to eject blood from the heart.
Resistance of blood flow is determined primarily by the diameter of blood vessels and blood viscosity. Increased peripheral vascular resistance results from a narrowing of the arteries and arterioles or and increased in fluid volume in the blood vessels that results from sodium and water retention.
Increased peripheral vascular resistance is the most prominent characteristic of hypertension.
The aging process is associated with multiple structural and functional alterations in cardiovascular system that can influence blood pressure regulation. Arterial stiffness, especially in the large arteries, is the pathological characteristic that best exemplifies geriatric hypertension.
Histological, the changes are apparent in the vascular sub endothelial and media layers, which thickness of the arteries due to the accumulation of collagenous fibers, calcium deposition, and loss of elastic fibers, resulting in narrowing and increased stiffness of blood vessels.
It is directly leads to increase in peripheral vascular resistance, a path gnomic characteristic of hypertension in the elderly population. Moreover, with increasing the age, blood vessels also become less responsive to B- adrenergic stimulation, which is necessary for vasodilatation.
On the other hand, alpha- adrenergic responsiveness remains unchanged. These changes also contribute to increase peripheral vascular resistance and lead to hypertension.
Beyond this structural change in the arteries, the regulation of vascular resistance is also affected by age related changes in the autonomic nervous system. There is an age associated decline in the sensitivity of the arterial baroreceptor.
This effects the regulation of vascular resistance in two important ways.
Health Paper-Hypertension. Topics: Blood pressure, Hypertension Essay Hypertension, also referred to as high blood pressure, is a condition in which the arteries have persistently elevated blood pressure. Every time the human heart beats, it pumps blood to the whole body through the arteries. The free Health research paper (Hypertension essay) presented on this page should not be viewed as a sample of our on-line writing service. If you need fresh and competent research / writing on Health, use the professional writing service offered by our company. Introduction. Hypertension is a multifactor disease characterized by chronic elevation in blood pressure to levels equal to or above mmHg systolic blood pressure (SBP) and .
First, a larger change in blood pressure is required to stimulate the baroreceptor to invoke the appropriate compensatory response in heart rate. This also contributes to the age related increase in blood pressure variability. Second, the decrease in baroreceptor sensitivity leads to relatively greater activation of sympathetic nervous system outflow for a given level of blood pressure.
An age associated increase in sympathetic nervous system activity has been demonstrated by higher plasma epinephrine and nor epinephrine levels. These hormones called catecholamine are vasoconstrictors which they cause the blood pressure to constrict making the diameter smaller.
By constricting blood vessels, nor-epinephrine increases peripheral vascular resistance and raises blood pressure. Epinephrine constricts blood vessels and increases the force of cardiac contraction, causing blood pressure to rise.
Regulation of peripheral vascular resistance by the vascular endothelium is also changed in relation to age.The free Health research paper (Hypertension essay) presented on this page should not be viewed as a sample of our on-line writing service.
If you need fresh and competent research / writing on Health, use the professional writing service offered by our company. Hypertension also known as high blood pressure is a common condition in which the force of the blood against your artery walls is high enough that it may eventually cause health problems, such as .
In this paper, I use the General Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (GCEA) method, first developed by the World Health Organization CHOosing Interventions that are Cost-Effective (WHO-CHOICE) project, to analyze the long-term costs and health benefits of selected hypertension prevention interventions in China .
Introduction. Hypertension is a multifactor disease characterized by chronic elevation in blood pressure to levels equal to or above mmHg systolic blood pressure (SBP) and . Supportive care and preventative care models can treat and minimize the potential adverse effects of hypertension.
The purpose of this paper is to describe changes that can be made by nurses and organizations to move from supportive care to preventative care. Hypertension and Health Essay.
Oct 15, · Words: Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Hypertension One of the major health problems that the American society and the whole world experience is the prevalence of hypertension or high- blood pressure- caused illnesses or deaths in many people today.