A report for this type of project should reflect a high quality, scientifically based investigation conducted by an experienced professional archaeologist.
Resources Introduction The methods used by archaeologists to gather data can be applied to any time period, including the very recent past.
One archaeologist in the U. Over the past years archaeologists have developed many effective methods and techniques for studying the past. Archaeologists also rely upon methods from other fields such as history, botany, geology, and soil science.
In this section of Methods of Gathering Data you will learn how archaeologists gather and analyze information by utilizing historical research techniques, field methods for data recovery, and laboratory analyses.
Back to top Historical Research Techniques Every archaeology project begins with a research design —a plan that describes why the archaeology is being done, what research questions it hopes to answer, and the methods and techniques that will be used to gather and analyze the artifacts and other archaeological materials.
It will also outline where artifacts recovered from the project will be stored, and how the research will be reported and shared with the public. Archival research Archival research is often the first step in archaeology. This research uncovers the written records associated with the study area.
If the area was inhabited during historical times in the past several hundred years in North America the archaeologist will look for primary historical documents associated with the study area. Primary historical documents that archaeologists how to write a field report archaeology tools consult before beginning their field research include: Open this History Toolkit to learn more about investigating the past with primary sources.
In addition to primary historical documents, archaeologists will look for site reports that have been prepared by other archaeologists who have studied this area.
These reports will describe what was found in this area during any previous archaeological investigations and will help guide the new research. Documentation files for all of the recorded prehistoric and historic sites in each state are maintained in the State Historic Preservation Office, along with archaeological research reports pertaining to sites in the state.
Oral History Oral history is another research method that archaeologists and historians may use to gather information. It includes any kind of information passed down by word of mouth, like stories you have been told about your family history, as well as traditions that your family observes.
Archaeologists today collaborate with descendants of Native American peoples, and with African American communities who are only a few generations removed from the lives of their enslaved or free ancestors, to better understand the cultural traditions of their pasts.
Archaeologists working on the 19th century Levi Jordan Plantation in Texas have interviewed descendants of both the plantation owners and the enslaved plantation workers as part of their research.
They have created the Levi Jordan web site to share this information with the public and to allow the public to communicate with the archaeologists. At Castle Rock Pueblo in southwestern Colorado archaeologists have learned about the past culture of the Anasazi peoples through both the objects left behind, and the oral traditions of modern Puebloan people.
Now get ready to take an electronic field trip back in time to Castle Rock Pueblo in AD and solve a mystery while you are there. In the Field While historians and archaeologists both use written documents to learn about the past, only archaeologists are trained to find and interpret archaeological sites.
Here you will learn about some of the field methods archaeologists use to find sites and, when necessary, to excavate them. A trowel is used to carefully remove thin layers of soil from test units.
Of course, many other tools are used by archaeologists in the field and lab to dig, sift, measure, and analyze artifacts. View some of these computer animations of tools and equipment that archaeologists use.
Others, like tape measurers, toothbrushes, brooms and dustpans, are household objects! You can also view photographs of archaeologists using some of these tools on sites.
How Do You Find Sites? Archaeologists use a number of different methods to find sites—and sometimes they are found just by accident! The prehistoric burials at Low Hauxley on the coast of England were discovered by an observant beach walker who noticed a stone box sticking out of a sand dune after a storm.
A burial ground with remains of more than 17th and 18th century Africans was discovered during building construction in New York City. An archaeological predictive model is a tool that indicates the probability that an archaeological site will occur in a certain area.
It helps determine where you look for sites based on factors like distance from water, ground steepness, soil type, and other factors that influence where people settle or perform certain tasks. The methods used to find sites will depend upon the kind of research questions that the archaeologist is trying to answer.
If highway or housing construction is planned, archaeologists may need to know of any archaeological sites on the property.
First they will check if any previous surveys have been done in the area and, if so, what was found. If no previous sites have been recorded, the archaeologist will conduct an archaeological survey to determine if the area contains any sites.
If sites are found, the archaeologist will want to know how many, their location, and how the sites relate to each other.
Usually, to save time and money, only a sample of the area is tested. Surface Surveys A surface survey is a systematic examination of the land.Field Methods - Describe the archaeological field methods used within the project area.
Please write in a manner that will allow reviewers and future researchers to reconstruct field procedures, determine why they were used, and understand what was observed. The Archaeology Handbook: A Field Manual and Resource Guide [Bill McMillon] on urbanagricultureinitiative.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Written expressly for amateur archaeologists and archaeological volunteers to help them discover how they can become part of this increasingly popular field.
Covers subjects ranging from excavation . Field notes are intended to be read by the researcher as evidence to produce meaning and an understanding of the culture, social situation, or phenomenon being studied.
The notes may constitute the whole data collected for a research study [e.g., an observational project] or contribute to it, such as when field notes supplement conventional. Archaeology Equipment: The Tools of the Trade. Search the site GO. Social Sciences. Archaeology Excavations the project archaeologist or Principal Investigator must write a complete report on the course and findings of the investigations.
The report will include any background information she discovered, the process of the excavations and. BAJR Guides as a series of simple downloadable reference articles about a variety of subjects relating to archaeology. If you would like to write for BAJR Guides then please get in touch.
Responsible for identifying artifacts (stone tools, pottery, historic-period ceramics and glass, etc.) in the field as well as accurately documenting context of recovered items.
Responsible for producing accurate field notes and records needed for report preparation.