The purpose of this study was to determine if schools where higher degrees of servant leadership were practiced performed better than schools that practiced lower degrees of servant leadership. Servant leadership is the understanding and practice of leadership that places the good of those led over the self-interest of the leader. The characteristics of servant leadership include valuing people, developing people, building community, displaying authenticity, providing leadership, and sharing leadership. Variables utilized to determine the relationship between servant leadership and school effectiveness included the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test FCAT test scores in writing, reading, mathematics, annual learning gains in mathematics, annual learning gains in reading, annual learning gains made by the lowest 25th percentile of students, attendance, dropout rates, and critical incidents.
Import into RefWorks 1. Introduction Employee Engagement is conceptualized as the individual's investment of his complete self into a role [ 54 ]. Engagement is a positive attitude where an individual goes above and beyond the call of duty, so as to heighten the level of ownership, and to further the business interest of the organisation as a whole [ 75 ].
Moreover, it is also a discretionary effort or a form of in-role or extra role effort or behavior that fosters change [ 61 ], and practically affects the employee morale, productivity, commitment, loyalty to internal and external customers, employee absenteeism and turnover in the organisation [ 2027 ].
There remains an academic knowledge gap in employee engagement literature, which continuously elicits the need for further empirical research in this area within diverse contexts and different demographic segments.
Egypt remains an emerging economy country where the term and practice of employee engagement is still under researched.
Explicitly, this study attempts to fill this engagement gap. To do so, it explored five drivers and two outcomes of employee engagement amongst employees working in both public and private banks in Cairo — Egypt.
The five drivers of employee engagement were namely: Job performance and organisational commitment were the two tested outcomes of employee engagement.
Egypt's banking sector continues to play a pivotal role in the development of country's economy. According to year fiscal statistics of The Central Bank of Egypt there are 40 operating banks in Egypt, 8 public banks, 12 national banks and 20 foreign banks [ 87 ]. Objective of the Study 2. To identify key factors affecting employee engagement in the Egyptian banking sector.
To investigate the relationship if any between employee engagement, job performance and organisational commitment. To suggest best practices needed to improve employee engagement and address the so-called 'engagement-gap' in the Egyptian working culture. There are differences among attitude, behaviour and outcomes, in terms of engagement.
As employee might perform with pride and commitment attitude ; exhibit three positive behaviours, namely Say employees speak positively about the organisation to others inside and outStay employees display an intense desire to be a member of the organisation and Strive employees exert extra effort and engage in behaviours that contribute to business success [ 49 ].
Outcomes may then lead to sustainable business success. Considerable studies have shown the existence of a statistical positive relationship between employee engagement and business productivity, profitability, employee retention, safety and customer satisfaction [ 21264968 ].
All these three dimensions— attitudes, behaviours and outcomes — need to be perceived as part and parcel of the ongoing engagement process [ 60 ].
The term employee engagement, coined by the Gallup Research group, remained attractive for three main reasons. First, as mentioned previously, employee engagement is interwoven significantly with crucial business outcomes.
An organisation with 'high' employee engagement might therefore be expected to outperform those with 'low' employee engagement, all else being equal [ 3290 ]. This may account for Egyptian employees' productivity gap and the on-going national economic hardships [ 4789 ].
Second, employee engagement mirrored the growing importance of human capital and psychological involvement of employees in business [ 86 ].
Businesses have no choice but to produce more output with less employee input.
In trying to do so, corporates need to engage not only the physical body, but also the mental mind and the innate soul of every individual employee. Third, the increasing scientific interest in positive psychological movement research that aims to discover and promote the factors that allow individual, organisation, and societies to grow and provide the required fertile ground that encourages the growth of engagement research in academia [ 77 ].
The concept of engagement as a multi-dimensional construct was first introduced by Khan inthe academic pioneer of the employee engagement movement. Personal engagement was defined as the harnessing of employees' selves to their work roles where they express themselves physically, cognitively and emotionally during role performances [ 53 ].
To explain said phenomenon, reference [ 53 ] associated three psychological conditions demonstrated in the work role performance, viz.
Burnout researchers defined engagement as the positive antithesis of burnout [ 6263 ]. However, reference [ 78 ] took a different perspective to define work engagement as a state of mind characterized by vigour energy and mental resiliencededication feeling proud about one's job and inspired by it and absorption feeling of contentment while performing work.
Further on, Saks' comprehensive model on antecedents and consequences of job engagement work roleand organisation engagement employees' role as members of an organisation was tested and validated [ 76 ]. In the bottom level there are the basic need of pay and working hour's conditions.
Once an employee becomes satisfied he then starts to look at the second, third, and fourth level for further advanced employment needs at work career development, promotion, trustworthy leadership style … and so on.impact of leadership styles on employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment – a study in the construction sector in india a thesis.
effective organizational communication affects employee attitude, happiness, and job SATISFACTION 3 The importance of a positive organizational culture is more than atmosphere, values.
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between organizational commitment and job satisfaction is that while organizational commitment can be defined as the emotional responses which an employee has towards his organization; job satisfaction is the responses that an employee has towards any job.
The Influence of Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment on Executive Withdrawal and Performance Abstract This research examines the influence of job.
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