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His name at birth was "Ahmed Shah"; he took the name "Massoud" as a nom de guerre when he went into the resistance movement in From his native Panjshir, his family moved briefly to Herat and then to Kabulwhere Massoud spent most of his childhood. He said he learned from Mao, but found Guevara's thinking to be too simple.
These developments gave rise to an Islamist movement opposed to the increasing communist and Soviet influence over Afghanistan. Kabul University was a centre for political debate and activism during that time.
Saur Revolution The government of Mohammed Daoud Khan tried to scale back the communist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan 's influence, dismissing PDPA members from their government posts, appointing conservatives to replace them, and finally announcing the dissolution of the PDPA, with the arrests of senior party members.
The reforms and the PDPA's affinity to the Soviet Union were met with strong resistance by the population, especially as the government attempted to enforce its Marxist policies by arresting or executing those who resisted.
Between 50, andpeople were estimated to have been arrested and killed by communist troops in the countryside alone. Over half of the Afghan army either deserted or joined the insurrection.
Believing that Kite runner and thousand splendid suns essay uprising against the Soviet-backed communists would be supported by the people, Massoud, on July 6,started an insurrection in the Panjshir, which initially failed.
Massoud decided to avoid conventional confrontation with the larger government forces and to wage a guerrilla war. Oliver Roy writes that in the following period, Massoud's "personal prestige and the efficiency of his military organisation persuaded many local commanders to come and learn from him.
Shura-e Nazar Massoud's alliance comprised many Jamiat positions but also those of other groups. Following the Soviet invasion and occupation of Afghanistan, Massoud devised a strategic plan for expelling the invaders and overthrowing the communist regime.
The first task was to establish a popularly based resistance force that had the loyalty of the people. The second phase was "active defense" of the Panjshir stronghold, while carrying out asymmetric warfare. In the third phase, the "strategic offensive", Massoud's forces would gain control of large parts of Northern Afghanistan.
The fourth phase was the "general application" of Massoud's principles to the whole country, and the defeat of the Afghan communist government. From the start of the war, Massoud's mujahideen attacked the occupying Soviet forces, ambushing Soviet and Afghan communist convoys travelling through the Salang Passand causing fuel shortages in Kabul.
Between andthese offensives were conducted twice a year. Despite engaging more men and hardware on each occasion, the Soviets were unable to defeat Massoud's forces. Inthe Soviets began deploying major combat units in the Panjshir, numbering up to 30, men. Massoud pulled his troops back into subsidiary valleys, where they occupied fortified positions.
When the Soviet columns advanced onto these positions, they fell into ambushes. When the Soviets withdrew, Afghan army garrisons took over their positions. Massoud and his mujahideen forces attacked and recaptured them one by one.
He put the respite to good use. In this time he created the Shura-e Nazar Supervisory Councilwhich subsequently united commanders from 12 Afghan provinces in their fight against the Soviet army. This council existed outside the Peshawar parties, which were prone to internecine rivalry and bickering, and served to smooth out differences between resistance groups, due to political and ethnic divisions.
It was the predecessor of what could have become a unified Islamic Afghan army. To compensate for this deficiency, Massoud relied on revenues drawn from exports of emeralds  and lapis lazuli that are traditionally exploited in Northern Afghanistan.
To organize support for the mujahideen, Massoud established an administrative system that enforced law and order nazm in areas under his control. The Panjshir was divided into 22 bases qarargah governed by a military commander and a civilian administrator, and each had a judge, a prosecutor and a public defender.
An education committee was charged with the training of the military and administrative cadre. A culture committee and a judiciary committee were also created. However, Massoud had received warning of the attack through his intelligence agents in the government and he evacuated allinhabitants from the valley into the Hindukush mountains, leaving the Soviet bombings to fall on empty ground and the Soviet battalions to face the mountains.Download-Theses Mercredi 10 juin A Thousand Splendid Suns, then, is indeed a splendid successor to The Kite Runner.
Though some may carp at the melodramatic quality of some of Hosseini’s episodes, his protagonists are flesh-and.
The greatest fiction books since (51 to ) determined by lists and articles from various critics, authors and experts.
June 18, The Kite Runner Vs. A Thousand Splendid Suns Travel to Afghanistan, a world where was has no end, a world where the Taliban rules, a country that is divided between political powers and religiously idealistic views and beliefs and a world where our characters lives have collided through pain and suffering.
Alexander Chee is an essayist and the author of the novel Edinburgh and the forthcoming The Queen of the urbanagricultureinitiative.com was the recipient of a Whiting Writers' Award in Why you should read him. Need Facebook Who Wants To Be A Millionaire answers, solutions and cheats?
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