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Need a custom Essay? Check the price and Order Now! Maxim Gorky a pseudonym for Alexei Maximovich Peshkov is recognized as one of the earliest and foremost exponents of socialist realism in literature.
His brutal yet romantic portraits of Russian life and his sympathetic depictions of the working class had an inspirational effect on the oppressed people of Online essays by maxim gorky native land. Gorky the tramp, the rebel, is as much a legend as the strong, individual characters presented in his stories.
His hero was a new type in the history of Russian literature—a figure drawn from the masses of a growing industrialized society; his most famous novel, Motherwas the first in that country to portray the factory worker as a force destined to overthrow the existing order. Works in Biographical and Historical Context An Orphan and a Runaway Gorky was orphaned at the age of ten and raised by his maternal grandparents.
He was often treated harshly by his grandfather, and Gorky received what little kindness he experienced as a child from his grandmother.
During his thirteenth year, Gorky ran away from Nizhny Novgorod, the city of his birth later renamed Gorkyand lived a precarious existence as a tramp and vagrant, wandering from one job to another. Frequently beaten by his employers, nearly always hungry and ill-clothed, Gorky came to know the seamy side of Russian life as few writers before him.
At the age of nineteen, he attempted suicide by shooting himself in the chest. Within a few years he began publishing stories in the provincial press. Written under the pseudonym Maxim Gorky Maxim the Bitterthese stories stressed the strength and individualism of the Russian peasant.
When they were collected and published in Ocherki i rasskazyGorky gained recognition throughout Russia. His second volume of stories, Rasskazyalong with the production of his controversial play The Lower Depthsassured his success and brought him acclaim in western Europe and the United States.
Three years later, he established the Znanie publishing firm to provide a forum for socially conscious writers. He was very active during the revolution ofand after its failure he was forced to flee abroad. He was allowed to return home inand again he resumed his revolutionary activities.
During the revolution and the ensuing years of political chaos, Gorky saved the lives of several intellectuals by interceding on their behalf with the communist regime. He left Russia one last time and settled on the island of Capri for health reasons.
Inon his sixtieth birthday, he returned to the Soviet Union to a national celebration of his literary, cultural, and moral contributions to the socialist cause. His death several years later, allegedly by poisoning, is still enveloped in mystery.
Gorky differentiates his characters according to their ideology; their personal relationships only emphasize their ideological clashes. The domestic conflict, for example, in Smug Citizens is projected onto a social canvas, and the play acquires a political dimension especially topical in pre Russia.
Also in Smug Citizens, the worker Nil emerges as the first proletarian character in Russian theater. He, like Gorky himself, hates the small bourgeoisie and their materialism. In the smug middle class he saw nothing but decay.
Through this attitude, the formerly romantic Gorky arrived at the straightforward and rugged realism that connected him with one of the basic traditions of Russian literature. Attack Against the Intelligentsia AfterGorky wrote a series of plays attacking the new intelligentsia.
The first comprises his short stories, which many critics consider superior to his novels. In a highly romantic manner, these stories portray the subjugation of Russian peasants and vagrants.
In them, Gorky championed the wisdom and self-reliance of vagabonds over the brutality of the decadent bourgeoisie. The trilogy is considered one of the finest autobiographies in the Russian language.
The work reveals Gorky as an acute observer of detail with a particular talent for describing people.
The third group, by far the largest, consists of a number of novels and plays that are not as artistically successful as his short stories and autobiography. The novel was the first of many in which the author portrayed the rise of Russian capitalism.
Yet, following the collapse of the Soviet Union insome of the most prominent entities reverted to their former names: Ideology over Artistry Despite his success and importance as a socialist writer, most modern critics agree that Gorky deserves little of the idolatrous attention that he has received.
They argue that his work suffers from an overly dramatic quality, a coarse, careless style, and an externally imposed structure that results in fiction motivated by ideology rather than by artistry.() The Mother is a story about revolutionary factory workers. It has been translated into many languages, and has also been adapted into a number of movies.
One of Maxim Gorky's firm convictions was that the purpose of literature was to raise a man's soul while expurgating seductive elements that subvert the peace and balance of life. Fragments of Recollections, a Essay by Maxim Gorky. literary criticism, literary analysis - Conflict Between the Rich and Poor in Maxim Gorky's Novel, Mother.
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'Mother' by Maxim Gorky Essay INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY LIFE Maxim Gorky whose real name was Aleksei Maximovich Peshkov, was born on March 16, , in the Volga River city of Nizhny Novgorod, which in was renamed Gorky in his honor.