Soc, 80, 73 - 93, A new 3D nonlinear inversion method including a full nonlinear 3D ray-tracing procedure is developed and applied to the inversion of teleseismic travel times and it is demonstrated that this method results in much less bias of the inverted structure of the lithosphere than the linear inversion approach used hitherto. This paper describes the development of a new nonlinear inversion method for determining simultaneously 3D crustal structure and hypocentral locations and presents an application to determine for the first time the 3D lithospheric structure of the Romanian Vrancea seismic region and provides an interpretation in terms of the improved earthquake locations and of the geometry of the subduction zone.
Being essentially a surface chemistry phenomenon, this fouling mechanism can be very sensitive to factors that affect colloidal stability, e.
A maximum fouling rate is usually observed when the fouling particles and the substrate exhibit opposite electrical charge, or near the point of zero charge of either of them.
Particles larger than those of colloidal dimensions may also foul e.
With time, the resulting surface deposit may harden Porous silicon thesis processes collectively known as "deposit consolidation" or, colloquially, "aging".
The common particulate fouling deposits formed from aqueous suspensions include: Fouling by particles from gas aerosols is also of industrial significance.
The particles can be either solid or liquid. The common examples can be fouling by flue gasesor fouling of air-cooled components by dust in air.
The mechanisms are discussed in article on aerosol deposition. Corrosion fouling[ edit ] Corrosion deposits are created in-situ by the corrosion of the substrate. They are distinguished from fouling deposits, which form from material originating ex-situ. Corrosion deposits should not be confused with fouling deposits formed by ex-situ generated corrosion products.
Corrosion deposits will normally have composition related to the composition of the substrate. Also, the geometry of the metal-oxide and oxide-fluid interfaces may allow practical distinction between the corrosion and fouling deposits.
An example of corrosion fouling can be formation of an iron oxide or oxyhydroxide deposit from corrosion of the carbon steel underneath.
Corrosion fouling should not be confused with fouling corrosion, i. Chemical reaction fouling[ edit ] Chemical reactions may occur on contact of the chemical species in the process fluid with heat transfer surfaces. In such cases, the metallic surface sometimes acts as a catalyst.
For example, corrosion and polymerization occurs in cooling water for the chemical industry which has a minor content of hydrocarbons. Systems in petroleum processing are prone to polymerization of olefins or deposition of heavy fractions asphalteneswaxes, etc.
High tube wall temperatures may lead to carbonizing of organic matter. Food industry, for example milk processing, also experiences fouling problems by chemical reactions. Fouling through an ionic reaction with an evolution of an inorganic solid is commonly classified as precipitation fouling not chemical reaction fouling.
Solidification fouling[ edit ] Solidification fouling occurs when a component of the flowing fluid "freezes" onto a surface forming a solid fouling deposit. Examples may include solidification of wax with a high melting point from a hydrocarbon solution, or of molten ash carried in a furnace exhaust gas onto a heat exchanger surface.
The surface needs to have a temperature below a certain threshold; therefore, it is said to be subcooled in respect to the solidification point of the foulant.
Biofouling A fragment of a canal lock in Northern France, covered with zebra mussels Biofouling or biological fouling is the undesirable accumulation of micro-organisms, algae and diatomsplants, and animals on surfaces, for example ships' hulls, or piping and reservoirs with untreated water.Hajime Arai Kyoto University, Japan Revisiting Zinc Air Batteries: Solutions for Longer Lifetime Zinc air batteries are promising owing to .
Liste de sujets de thèses /List of PhD topics Please find below a list of PhD topics offered by professors from ULB. You can refine the list by using the search facility. Die vollständige Bibliografie finden Sie im Publikationsserver der BAM (PUBLICA)..
Messen im Bauwesen Nov 20, Der Tagungsband zur Fachtagung „Messen im Bauwesen“ enthält die Beiträge der Autoren zum diesjährigen Thema „Messtechnische Anwendungen und deren Einbindung in digitale Bauwerksmodelle“ enthält.
Projects Available. This page gives details of all projects currently on offer for research towards a DPhil in Materials Science at the Department of Materials, University of Oxford.
Education (general): Undergraduate student of physics and mathematics at the University of Göttingen, Germany (). Degree: Vordiploma in physics and mathematics, Graduate student of physics at the University of Paris XI, Orsay, France ().
Degree: Partial fullfilment of the certificate of the Maitrise (Master) in physics. Autologous bone graft is the gold standard clinical material for bone regeneration in term of osteoconduction and osteoinduction. However, limited availability and donor site morbidity are concerned.