The role of the Auditor-General in public sector accountability Spending public money wisely and well: The day to day work of the office therefore gives us a very broad view of public sector activities.
Leading definitions[ edit ] Practical: Strategic Planning; deciding on the goals and objectives of an organization. Management Control; management's process of assuring effective and efficient accomplishment of goals and objectives laid out via strategic planning.
Operational Control; focused on proper execution of specific tasks that provide the most efficient and effective means of meeting the goals and objectives ordered by management control. Inputs enter the governmental system that produces outputs which—in turn—are related to outcomes.
Line Item Budgeting is arguably the simplest form of budgeting, this approach links the inputs of the system to the system.
These budgets typically appear in the form of accounting documents that express minimal information regarding purpose or an explicit object within the system. Program Budgeting takes a normative approach to budgeting in that decision making—allocating resources—is determined by the funding of one program instead of another based on what that program offers.
This approach quickly lends itself to the PPBS budgeting approach. As opposed to the more simple program budget, this decision making tool links the program under consideration to the ways and means of facilitating the program.
This is meant to serve as a long-term planning tool so that decision makers are made aware of the future implications of their actions.
These are typically most useful Public finance perspective latvia essay capital projects. The planning portion of the approach seeks to link goals to objects or expected outcomes from specific outputs, which are then sorted into programs that convert inputs to outputs; finally, the budgeting of PPBS helps determine how to fund the program.
A decision making—or allocation of scarce resources—problem is solved by determining which project maximizes efficiency and efficacy.
Zero-based budgeting is a response to an incremental decision making process whereby the budget of a given fiscal year FY is largely decided upon by the existing budget of FY In contrast to incrementalismthe allocation of scarce resources—funding—is determined from a zero-sum accounting method.
In government, each function of a department's section proposes certain objectives that relate to some goal the section could achieve if allocated x dollars. Flexible Freeze is a budgeting approach pioneered by President George H.
Bush as a means to cut government spending. Under this approach, certain programs would be affected by changes in population growth and inflation.
Program Assessment Rating Tool P. The scores are rated from effective ranging between 85 and pointsmoderately affective pointsadequate pointsand ineffective points.
Priority Based Budgeting is a response to poor economic conditions. As opposed to incremental budgeting, where resource allocation is determined based on marginal shifts in costs, priority based budgeting fixes the amount of governmental resources and then allocates resources across the various programs.
The programs receive their allocation based on their priority; priorities may include safe and secure communities, health, education, and community development among others. Outcome assessment then determines the efficacy of the programs.
Although this approach is pro-democratic, critics suggest the administration of this process is extremely difficult. Functions of a budget document[ edit ] As a policy document, a government's budget is designed as a plan for implementing its policy.
Traditionally, budgets served as a more rigid tool to implement policy in a retrospective setting. The functions associated with these values are listed under the Traditional Model and are control, management, and planning.
The Modern Model, taking a less rigid approach, has replaced the control function with the monitoring function, the management function with the steering function, and the planning function with the strategic brokering function.
Strategic Brokering uses the budget document as a means of constantly looking for possible directions and reacting to the environment. Values in budgeting[ edit ] Three values are generally discussed in the literature of public budgeting: Accountability focuses on the inputs going into the system or program in action and is best characterized by the line-item budgeting approach.
It is best suited for the control and monitoring functions of a budget. Efficiency focuses on the process of the system or program and its conversion of inputs resources into outputs policy.
Its focus on the process makes this value appropriate for performance budgets and most in-line with management and steering functions. Efficacy focuses on outputs and outcomes, measuring the impact of policy. This value follows both the program budget and PPBS budget approaches and coincides with the planning and strategic brokering functions.Journal of Public Administration, Finance and Law The study addresses the issue of the country brand from a new perspective, aiming to identify The essay contest "What is the Meaning of Tolerance in the Modern World?”; The grant awarded to Romania for modernizing the air control system.
The essays can be the most important components of your application. Read selected examples of essays that worked, as nominated by our admissions committee. film, and English majors) to create more meaningful art. Understanding fellow students’ perspective, talents, and ideas are what build a great community.
Summary: This Selected Issues paper assesses whether Latvia’s strategy to enter ERM2 and adopt the euro is appropriate. The paper examines the possibility of an exchange rate misalignment from various perspectives.
The Public Finance Management Act (P.F.M.A.) is an exemplary guideline for effective financial control and it is being lauded by financial experts, with by far the majority of its clauses being noted as practical and of great value for improved public finance.
Contributors look at both the "tax" and "expenditure" sides of public finance, emphasizing recent influences that psychology and philosophy have exerted in economics with articles on behavioral finance, charitable giving, and dynamic taxation.
This paper explores the nationalising policies of Estonia and Latvia in the wake of independence restoration from the incorporation into the Soviet Union. As in all newly independent postcommu‐nist states, the national question consumed the initial stages of the democratisation process.