Many of the respondents noted that customers can change delivery orders based on 10 days or less, and a majority indicated that that this window can be one day or less. Even more challenging, customers are also increasingly demanding full transparency to their orders and inventory through the entire life-cycle of raw-material to finish-goods to sale to sometimes reverse-logistics. That means full sight of each order and its associated item level detail at all times in real time. Giving customers the flexibility and visibility they want is especially difficult given that many logistics service providers must serve customers with operations that are spread out across the globe.
This is accomplished by dissolving lignin in a cooking liquor, so that it may be washed from the cellulose ; this preserves the length of the cellulose fibres. Paper made from chemical pulps are also known as wood-free papers —not to be confused with tree-free paper ; this is because they do not contain lignin, which deteriorates over time.
The microscopic structure of paper: Micrograph of paper autofluorescing under ultraviolet illumination. There are three main chemical pulping processes: The kraft processinvented in the s and first used in the s, is now the most commonly practiced strategy, one of its advantages is the chemical reaction with lignin, that produces heat, which can be used to run a generator.
Most pulping operations using the kraft process are net contributors to the electricity grid or use the electricity to run an adjacent paper mill. Another advantage is that this process recovers and reuses all inorganic chemical reagents. Soda pulping is another specialty process used to pulp strawsbagasse and hardwoods with high silicate content.
Mechanical pulping There are two major mechanical pulps: In the TMP process, wood is chipped and then fed into steam heated refiners, where the chips are squeezed and converted to fibres between two steel discs. In the groundwood process, debarked logs are fed into grinders where they are pressed against rotating stones to be made into fibres.
Mechanical pulps have rather short fibres, thus producing weak paper. Although large amounts of electrical energy are required to produce mechanical pulp, it costs less than the chemical kind. De-inked pulp Paper recycling processes can use either chemically or mechanically produced pulp; by mixing it with water and applying mechanical action the hydrogen bonds in the paper can be broken and fibres separated again.
Most recycled paper contains a proportion of virgin fibre for the sake of quality; generally speaking, de-inked pulp is of the same quality or lower than the collected paper it was made from.
There are three main classifications of recycled fibre:.
Sep 04, · Reverse Logistics News and Resources. "Circular Economy” was the theme addressed by The Reverse Logistics Association’s (RLA) at its annual conference and expo in . Automatic works cited and bibliography formatting for MLA, APA and Chicago/Turabian citation styles. Now supports 7th edition of MLA. Reverse logistics and the return portion of the supply chain is often an overlooked and mismanaged process. Companies tend to focus their efforts on the forward portion of supply chain management, while failing to take advantage of the many opportunities that reverse logistics presents (Benton, )/5(1).
Such out-of-specification paper is not sold and is therefore often not classified as genuine reclaimed recycled fibre, however most paper mills have been reusing their own waste fibre for many years, long before recycling became popular.
Additives Besides the fibres, pulps may contain fillers such as chalk or china clay which improve its characteristics for printing or writing.
Producing paper Main articles: Paper machine and papermaking The pulp is fed to a paper machine where it is formed as a paper web and the water is removed from it by pressing and drying. Pressing the sheet removes the water by force; once the water is forced from the sheet, a special kind of felt, which is not to be confused with the traditional one, is used to collect the water; whereas when making paper by hand, a blotter sheet is used instead.
Drying involves using air or heat to remove water from the paper sheets. In the earliest days of paper making, this was done by hanging the sheets like laundry; in more modern times, various forms of heated drying mechanisms are used. On the paper machine, the most common is the steam-heated can dryer.
Finishing The paper may then undergo sizing to alter its physical properties for use in various applications.
Paper at this point is uncoated.If we consider forward and reverse supply chains simultaneously, the result network will construct a closed-loop supply chain. Fig.
1 illustrates a generic supply chain for both forward and reverse logistics. In this figure, the classical (forward), and reverse supply chains are . ADAPTIVE LOGISTICS: PREPARING LOGISTICAL SYSTEMS FOR CLIMATE CHANGE.
Alan McKinnon and Andre Kreie Logistics Research Centre, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK. Source One's suite of whitepapers leverage strategies and best practices to assist in the advancement of procurement and strategic sourcing. Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to identify the key issues faced by today's supply chain professionals when managing reverse logistics (RL) processes and compare these issues with the.
There has been consensus that logistics as well as supply chain management is a vital research field, yet with few literature reviews on this topic.
This paper sets out to propose some hot issues in the current research, through a review of related literature from the perspective of operations management. In addition, we generate some insights and future research directions in this field.
Sep 04, · Reverse Logistics News and Resources. "Circular Economy” was the theme addressed by The Reverse Logistics Association’s (RLA) at its annual conference and expo in .