Most of the world has been rural most of the time.
As evidenced by our review, there were several conditions for which there was a paucity of evidence regarding their prevention, diagnosis or treatment in rural health care settings e. Studies tended to be conducted in areas in which either the information was readily available in a national database, a performance measure or guideline existed for which there was evidence and which served to operationalize quality care e.
Given the data sources, study designs were predominantly cross-sectional or retrospective cohort designs, and only one of the studies we reviewed used a prospective design.
Few studies associated health care differences with health outcomes. Given these limitations, the strength of the evidence was at best weak to moderate for most areas even when a significant finding was consistently present. Most of our conclusions, therefore, are at best suggestive.
Another significant conceptual problem with the use of extant data sources and the cross-sectional study designs used was that potential reasons for rural-urban differences were often treated as confounders and adjusted for in statistical models.
There are many correlates of rural residency that may affect health care utilization or access e. Because our evidence base relied on peer reviewed articles, we did not include national reports examining potential differences in rural vs.
However, because these reports serve to inform policy makers, at the end of this section we compare findings from the National Healthcare Disparities Report and the VHA Facility Quality and Safety Report with the results of this systematic review. Do adults with health care needs who live in rural areas have different intermediate e.
Below we list the findings for which there is some evidence of a health care disparity. There is some weak evidence that increasing rurality is associated with a greater frequency of hospitalization for ACSC's.
No evidence for differences in cancer mortality. There is some evidence of greater rates of DCIS and lower rates of invasive cervical cancer in urban areas where screening rates are higher. There was no evidence for a disparity between rural and urban patients with diabetes in terms of diabetes complications or the prevalence of ESRD.
However, there was some evidence that race by rurality interactions may exist in diabetes care and in the treatment of ESRD. Although very limited, the available information suggests that outpatient control of hypertension, at least among veterans, does not differ between those residing in rural vs.
There was weak evidence for higher hospitalization rates for rural residents treated for depression in Arkansas. Is the structure e.
Use of Medication No consistent differences were found in receipt of or adherence to medication. To the extent that a few studies reported any differences, urban residents tended to receive more medications.
Medical Procedures and Diagnostic Tests The use of most services, including office visits and consultations, imaging services, and diagnostic testing, were found to be lower in rural areas compared to urban areas.
More consistent evidence was found specifically for lower screening rates for breast and cervical cancer in many rural areas. Differences in screening rates for colorectal cancer are not consistently found. However, all but one study found a greater frequency of unstaged cancer at the time of diagnosis in rural areas compared to urban areas.
Medical Appointments with Providers Rural residents were less likely to see a medical provider than urban residents. Specifically, rural residents were less likely to see specialists, and low availability of specialists had deleterious impact on some health outcomes e. However, studies did not generally account for the fact that rural residents often receive specialty health care in urban clinics and how this might affect health outcomes.
More consistent was the lower rate of mental health care service receipt among residents in rural areas. Usual Source of Care There was no consistent evidence that rural residents were less likely to have a usual source of care. In fact, there was more consistent evidence that rural residents had better continuity of care.
Having fewer health care choices seems to increase the odds of remaining with the same provider over time. Provider Availability and Expertise There was consistent evidence that highly rural areas had a paucity of health care providers.Difference Between Urban and Rural Urban. Urban is defined as that area where there are lots of people living in that area.
The Urban area has wide, and lots of population and this type of region is full of everything like shops, showrooms, companies, hospitals, vehicles, etc. Urban Life vs. Rural Life Essay. Length: words ( double-spaced pages) Rating: Better Essays.
Open Document. Therefore the drive to migrate to urban areas becomes obvious. Rural to urban migration leads to a loss of man power in the rural areas to work on . Misc thoughts, memories, proto-essays, musings, etc. And on that dread day, the Ineffable One will summon the artificers and makers of graven images, and He will command them to give life to their creations, and failing, they and their creations will be dedicated to the flames.
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Jan 10, · Urban Life Vs Rural Life Composition Urban life and rural life are quietly different from one another. Swimming, fishing, playing game in the field, running through the paddy field, drinking date juice in the winter morning can only enjoy in the village.