History[ edit ] Italian neorealism came about as World War II ended and Benito Mussolini 's government fell, causing the Italian film industry to lose its centre. Neorealism was a sign of cultural change and social progress in Italy. Largely prevented from writing about politics the editor-in-chief of the magazine was Vittorio Mussolinison of Benito Mussolinithe critics attacked the Telefoni Bianchi films that dominated the industry at the time.
To celebrate this good news, I decided to post the detailed notes I wrote for students in the whole thing is 4, words plus. A note on titles: The Bicycle Thief is the American title. The UK title is Bicycle Thieves. The latter is more accurate and a better translation — see the Synopsis at the end of the Notes.
Introduction Bicycle Thieves is a classic of global cinema, a film that every student needs to see at least once, a film that in some sense represents filmmaking at a particular time and in a particular place.
It has become associated with the film movement known as Italian neo-realism and its status as a classic to some extent depends upon this association. He began directing by the late s and produced one of the earliest films to have subsequently been associated with neo-realism, The Children Are Watching in These notes trace the neo-realist elements in Bicycle Thieves and also consider the context of its production and reception in Italy and across the world from the late s and through the s.
Cinema and society in post war Italy The fighting in Italy during andespecially after the surrender of the Italian army and the subsequent fierce resistance by German forces against the Americans, British and anti-fascist Italian partisans, had a savage impact upon the Italian economy, exacerbated by the movements of thousands of displaced people.
For several years after the complete liberation of Italy, the country was plagued with unemployment, housing problems, severe poverty and the destabilising effects of a rampant black market for goods.
But it is important to realise that neo-realist films represented only a tiny proportion of Italian film production in the late s.
Pierre Sorlin suggests as few as features out of the 1, films made between and The politics of the period saw a struggle between the Italian Communist Party, the largest in Western Europe, and strong in the major cities in Central Italy, and the right-wing Christian Democrats, with their strength in the North.
Despite the success of the Labour Party in the UK inAmerican and British support went to the Christian Democrats and with the support of the Catholic church, the communists were denied political power. Politics is not openly represented in Bicycle Thieves, except when Antonio first arrives home after the loss of the bicycle.
He stumbles in on a political meeting, but quickly leaves to find Baiocco. Several commentators have pointed out that there would be no story if Antonio was a member of the Communist Party, since the local branch would have either found him a new bicycle or helped him look for his own.
It is clear from several scenes that Antonio is not a Roman — he is probably an immigrant from the South or from a village in Central Italy. This particular list is strong on what could be termed the conventions of a certain form of cinematic realism.
It is less effective in explaining the motivation of some of the filmmakers. There are those who still think of neo-realism as something external, as going out into the open air, as a contemplation of misery and suffering. For me it is nothing more than the artistic form of truth. I cannot believe in an entertainment film.
The subject of the neo-realism film is the world; not story or narrative. It contains no preconceived thesis, because ideas are born in the film from the subject. It has no affinity with the superfluous and the merely spectacular, which it refuses, but is attracted to the concrete.
It refuses recipes and formulas. Instead of a scriptwriter suggesting a story, which is then constructed in cinematic time and space in such a way as to suggest the realism of the event, Rossellini proposes to literally make films out of the reality he finds.
Eventually, this would lead Rossellini to making a film like Viaggio in Italia in which he made up the script as he went along. A woman goes into a shop to buy a pair of shoes.
The shoes cost 7, lire. The woman tries to bargain. The scene lasts perhaps two minutes, but I must make a two-hour film.The Realism of Hans Morgenthau Brian A. Keaney ABSTRACT This thesis analyzes the life and career of Hans J. Morgenthau, commonly both the essentially sterile internal debates between classical and neo-realism and those between classical realism, neo-realism and neo .
Realism, then, considers prudence-the weighing of the consequences of alternative political actions-to be the supreme virtue in politics.
Ethics in the abstract judges action by its conformity with the moral law; political ethics judges action by its political consequences. Mary Wood () quotes a French film journal, Films et documents from and its “Ten Points of neo-realism”: the message; topical scripts inspired by concrete events – great historical and social issues tackled from the point of view of the ‘common people’;.
Ten Points of Italian Neorealism March 26, PM In , the Parisian journal Films& Documents published the famous "ten points of neorealism," which, to a large degree, still remain valid.
The basic tenets of neorealism enable the systematic approach to studying shifts in state behaviour. Six fundamental neorealist concepts are respectively introduced in this section; anarchy.
Neorealism – or structural realism – is the bedrock theory of International Relations. Starting from a simple set of assumptions, it seeks to explain how states, in particular the most powerful ones, behave, and how they interact with each other on the international arena.