That means that every second, minute and every other division of time counted by the clock will be the same duration as any other identical division of time. But a sundial which measures the relative position of the sun in the sky called apparent time, does not keep uniform time. The time kept by a sundial varies by time of year, meaning that seconds, minutes and every other division of time is a different duration at different times of the year. The time of day measured with mean time versus apparent time may differ by as much as 15 minutes, but a single day will differ from the next by only a small amount; 15 minutes is a cumulative difference over a part of the year.
This article focuses on what distinguishes a chemical bomb from a nuclear bomb by taking a close look at what is going on at the atomic level.
Nuclear Devices A nuclear explosion is a very high-speed nuclear reaction. These explosions release energy from bonds that hold nuclei together inside atoms. The nuclear process in a nuclear device or bomb may be one of fission splitting atomic nuclei or a multistage combination of fusion combining atomic nuclei and fission, where fission initiates a fusion reaction there are no pure fusion bombs in existence.
We will explore in detail how fission and fusion weapons work in the next article. A chemical explosion, in contrast, is a chemical reaction in which the nucleus stays intact while electron bonds between atoms in the explosive compound are broken and new ones are created.
Explosive Yields of Nuclear Devices Compared to Chemical Explosives A nuclear weapon yields far more explosive energy than any chemical weapon.
Still, it is conventional to describe the amount of energy released by a nuclear detonation as TNT equivalent. For example, the Fat Man nuclear bomb that dropped on Nagasaki released the equivalent of about 22 kilotonnes kt of TNT. Fat Man, an implosion-style plutonium bomb, was not very powerful compared to many other nuclear devices, It was a thousand times less powerful than later large nuclear fission bombs that were developed, and about ten thousand times less powerful than the first hydrogen bombs.
Yet, as we touched on in the previous article, this nuclear explosion was ten times more powerful than the Halifax chemical explosionone of the largest explosions in history. Hydrogen bombs H-bombs or thermonuclear bombs are the most powerful bombs of all.
The first H-bomb tested was Ivy Mike. It was detonated in by the U. S in an atoll in the Pacific Ocean. This bomb was equivalent to If we compare this to the 22 kt yield of Fat Man, it is about times more powerful.
Ivy Mike's detonation is shown below right. That distinction goes to the accidental N1 rocket launch explosion in This heavy-lift Soviet rocket exploded on the launch pad after a loose bolt was ingested into a fuel pump.
Designed for very large payloads, it contained tonnes of kerosene and tonnes of liquid oxygen. It is difficult to estimate how much of this explosion was detonation and how much of it was deflagration, as the two fuels were unmixed when it went off, but its energy was roughly equivalent to 7 kt of TNT the Halifax explosion was equivalent to 2.
The photo below left gives you an idea of what this huge type of rocket looked like. Saturn V, which it was built to compete with, is on the left for comparison. Ebs08;Wikipedia The yields of various nuclear devices range enormously, from 0.
This was the yield of Tsar Bombathe most powerful H-bomb and therefore the most powerful artificial explosion ever detonated. Russian-made, it was detonated in the Russian archipelago, Novaya Zemlya. A participant in the experiment felt the heat from it km away.
The shockwave broke windowpanes as far away as km. The 8-minute video below, from the History Channeldiscusses Tsar Bomba and provides a chilling account of what happens when a hydrogen bomb like this one detonates.Answer Key Answer keys for the cases in our collection are password-protected and access to them is limited to paid subscribed instructors.
I hope to use the history of the atom case study with my students in Ireland. The website of case studies is a great idea, thanks for making it available. Brigid Corrigan Science Mount Sackville. History of the Atom. Introduction Our understanding of the physical world has grown at an incredible rate in the last years.
The key to the advances made in chemistry has been our growing knowledge about atoms. In this unit we will look at some of the early historical discoveries that helped us build up a useful 'working model' of the atom.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1. With a standard atomic weight of , hydrogen is the lightest element on the periodic urbanagricultureinitiative.com monatomic form (H) is the most abundant chemical substance in the Universe, constituting roughly 75% of all baryonic mass.
Non-remnant stars are mainly composed of hydrogen in the plasma state. The idea of the atom — at one time a theory, but now directly observable — is the basic concept that unites all aspects of Chemistry, so this is where we begin. The Particle Adventure.
An award winning tour of quarks, neutrinos, the Higgs boson, extra dimensions, dark matter, accelerators and particle detectors from the Particle Data Group of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The timeworn and pedestrian answer is simply "to get to the other side." Here are some creative and original answers: The chicken crossed the road.