Preliminary Distinctions Egalitarianism is a contested concept in social and political thought.
Hoplite, 5th century Hoplites shown in two attack positions, with both an overhand and underhand thrust The fragmented political structure of Ancient Greece, with many competing city-states, increased the frequency of conflict, but at the same time limited the scale of warfare.
Limited manpower did not allow most Greek city-states to form large armies which could operate for long periods because they were generally not formed from professional soldiers. Most soldiers had careers as farmers or workers and returned to these professions after the campaign. All hoplites were expected to take part in any military campaign when called for duty by leaders of the state.
The Lacedaemonian citizens of Sparta were renowned for their lifelong combat training and almost mythical military prowess, while their greatest adversaries, the Athenians, were exempted from service only after the 60th year of their lives.
This inevitably reduced the potential duration of campaigns and often resulted in the campaign season being restricted to one summer.
Armies generally marched directly to their destination, and in some cases the battlefield was agreed to by the contestants in advance. Battles were fought on level ground, and hoplites preferred to fight with high terrain on both sides of the phalanx so the formation could not be flanked.
An example of this was the Battle of Thermopylaewhere the Spartans specifically chose a narrow coastal pass to make their stand against the massive Persian army. The vastly outnumbered Greeks held off the Persians for seven days. When battles occurred, they were usually set piece and intended to be decisive.
The battlefield would be flat and open to facilitate phalanx warfare.
These battles were usually short and required a high degree of discipline. At least in the early classical period, when cavalry was present, its role was restricted to protection of the flanks of the phalanx, pursuit of a defeated enemy, and covering a retreat if required.
Light infantry and missile troops took part in the battles but their role was less important. Before the opposing phalanxes engaged, the light troops would skirmish with the enemy's light forces, and then protect the flanks and rear of the phalanx.
The military structure created by the Spartans was a rectangular phalanx formation. The formation was organized from eight to ten rows deep and could cover a front of a quarter of a mile or more if sufficient hoplites were available. The two lines would close to a short distance to allow effective use of their spears, while the psiloi threw stones and javelins from behind their lines.
The shields would clash and the first lines protostates would stab at their opponents, at the same time trying to keep in position. The ranks behind them would support them with their own spears and the mass of their shields gently pushing them, not to force them into the enemy formation but to keep them steady and in place.
The soldiers in the back provided motivation to the ranks in the front being that most hoplites were close community members. At certain points, a command would be given to the phalanx or a part thereof to collectively take a certain number of steps forward ranging from half to multiple steps.
This was the famed othismos. The hoplite phalanx is a frequent subject in ancient Greek art At this point, the phalanx would put its collective weight to push back the enemy line and thus create fear and panic among its ranks.
There could be multiple such instances of attempts to push, but it seems from the accounts of the ancients that these were perfectly orchestrated and attempted organized en masse.Two trends have changed the world of work in many ways.
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The first is the shift towards a knowledge based economy that many countries are seeing and the second is global connectivity, interdependence and integration.
The new career context that is emerging as a result of these trends has given rise to the terms - Protean and Boundaryless careers. Known for great flavor, texture and appearance, our albacore tuna comes from around the world Chicken of the Sea is now proud to offer MSC certified products. This book is about the contemporary picaresque novel.
Despite its popularity, the picaresque, unlike the bildungsroman, is still an undertheorized genre, especially for the context of postcolonial urbanagricultureinitiative.com study considers the picaresque novel’s traditional focus on poverty and deprivation, and argues that its postcolonial versions urge us to conceive of as a more wide-ranging sense.
An early look at the Oscar race. This week our team breaks down what to expect next year at the Academy Awards and which movies have already started to make a splash. Because of the emphasis upon following one’s own career path, authors in the field have often associated the protean career with careers and lifestyles that are independent of a heavy commitment to or reliance upon an employing organization, or upon traditional status symbols such as income.
Stephen Jay Gould, Evolution Theorist, Dies at By Carol Kaesuk Yoon The New York Times, May 21, Stephen Jay Gould, the evolutionary theorist at Harvard University whose research, lectures and prolific output of essays helped to reinvigorate the field of .