Do You Have Them All? Silly question, I know. But do you know that there are a certain set of skills which you need to master if you want to be an expert in it?
References provide support for statements and add credibility to writing.
The rules for what needs a citation are an academic tradition, but are rarely stated explicitly: All direct quotations from another author must be cited.
The writer has no discretion in this matter: Failure to cite quotations is known as plagiarism, a serious academic offense that is equivalent to fraudulent representation of someone else's property as the writer's.
It is highly recommended that authors always include the indicia of a quotation [i. It is not an acceptable defense to plagiarism to claim that the author forgot to include the indicia of a quotation. All substantial information taken from another source should be cited.
There are four reasons for this: The meaning of "substantial information" in 2 is deduced on a case-by-case basis by considering the four reasons.
If at least one of the reasons is appropriate or desirable, then a reference should be used. However, one does not give a reference for well-known facts e. The appropriate test is whether any person with an undergraduate education in the appropriate specialty would immediately recognize the fact: Let us take a moment to expand on item 2b above.
If the writer doubts the truth of the information, then the writer should indicate to the reader the basis for those doubts. This can be accomplished diplomatically by making a "on the one hand Doubts can also be raised and at least partly resolved by discussing alternative interpretations.
The point is that the writer can not just serve the reader some cited material and then walk away from the mess: If a complete resolution of the facts is not possible, then the writer has an obligation to say so. Some types of statements beg for a citation. For example, It is commonly believed that It is widely known that The conventional wisdom is that These assertions need a citation of at least one I prefer three references that support the assertion.
These references may be to textbooks, which are rarely cited in professional literature in other contexts. There are two reasons for requiring a reference to this type of statement: What kind of literature should be referenced? It is preferred that all references be archival material: There is one test for "archival": Is it retained permanently by many major technical libraries?
In general, any paper that is listed in standard databases e. In addition, patents and government reports qualify as archival materials, although they are often not considered scholarly materials.
Engineering standards, although they are important, are not archival: It is almost impossible to locate a copy of an obsolete or withdrawn standard, unless one knows an old engineer who has a copy in the filing cabinet! For these reasons, standards are not archival documents.
However, if one needs to cite to conventional good engineering practice or to cite to a performance specification, then one can cite engineering standards.Synonyms of ability - capacity, capability, potential, potentiality, power. Number of Synonyms to Enhance Students’ Speaking and Writing Vocabulary SKILLS ADDRESSED: Vocabulary, Language, and Writing Development of synonymic relationships as a prerequisite to this “Synonym Triplets” instructional strategy.
Prior to the use of this strategy, build on students’ background knowledge related to synonyms . Of course, your style will vary if you move between genres and synonym of writing.
Creative Synonyms, Creative Antonyms | urbanagricultureinitiative.com English prepositions How to get prepositions right in public service writing skills test heartbeat.
Archaic words Archaic words have a charm that never fades away, from French . Free thesaurus definition of words used to describe writing or speech style from the Macmillan English Dictionary - a free English dictionary online with thesaurus . writing ability synonyms, antonyms, English dictionary, English language, definition, see also 'wring',writ',write',writer', Reverso dictionary, English synonym.
90% of the time, speakers of English use just 7, words in speech and writing. These words appear in red, and are graded with stars. One-star words are frequent, two-star words are more frequent, and three-star words are the most frequent. The thesaurus of synonyms and related words is fully.